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The knee comprises of

  • Patella/knee-cap
  • Patellar groove on the front of the femur through which it slides
  • Medial and lateral tibiofemoral couplings connecting thigh bone/femur with the tibia
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Relief From Knee Pain Without Surgery

Physical examination of the patient with a knee complaint begins with inspection.

1) Observation of the alignment of the lower extremity should demonstrate a normal 7 degree valgus (knock-knee) angle at the knee when a patient is standing. Deformity of the leg in varus or valgus beyond 7 degrees can be associated with either a ligamentous or osseous deficiency.

2) Next, the evaluation focuses on the patient’s gait. Normal gait involves the range of motion from 0 to 65 degrees of flexion. The gait should have a smooth cadence, with the length of each step being equal on the left and right sides. The knee should not demonstrate any sudden shift to either the lateral or medial side.

Various types of imaging techniques are used for patients suffering from knee problems. X-ray, C.T Scan, M.R.I etc. X.Ray and C.T scan are useful for detection of fractures and subluxation of the joint. They also help in an investigation of articular surfaces.

MRI is currently one of the topmost imaging techniques which give out the most accurate results related to all the soft tissue structures within the knee based on their biochemical properties.

One of the most common injuries in the knee is the one that happens to soft tissues. Post an injury, a knee which has suffered the accumulation of fluid has pretty high chances of a critical soft tissue injury,  as close to 80 %.

Meniscal tear, Patellar dislocation or ACL usually happen at the same time when kneecap is dislocated.

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Biomechanics of the Knee

The mechanical axis of the lower extremity extends from the center of rotation of the hip to the center of the ankle joint.

Evaluation of the Painful Knee

The history should begin with the primary complaint and since how long the patient has been experiencing the problem.

Meniscal Tears

This condition happens due to twisting of the knee with some flexion.Younger people who are mostly involved in sports are prone to this.

Ligament Injuries

Ligamentous formations are damaged due to joint uncertainty in the knee. Along with pain and swollenness, knee deviation.

Arthritis

Osteoarthritis patients often develop angular deformities. Varus knee angulation is the most common form of deformity.